• PUBLICATION Postharvest Chlorination

    ucfoodsafety.ucdavis.edu/.../inline-files/26414.pdfChlorination of process water is one of the primary elements of a properly managed postharvest sanitation program. In conjunction with an overall safety management program, chlorination is generally effective, comparatively inexpensive, and may be implemented in operations of any size.

  • Basic Chemistry of Chlorination - Hydro Instruments

    Chemistry of...chlorination for the effective removal of small amounts of hydrogen sulfide and elimination of iron bacteria (crenothrix) associated with objectionable odor and taste. Chlorination of surface water (lakes, rivers, etc.) may be more difficult and can require combined methods File Size: 230KBPage Count: 8


    watertech-inc.com/download/Chlorination.pdfallow the water to stabilize. 9. Collect a water sample for coliform (bacteria) analysis from a raw water tap to determine whether the chlorination procedure was successful. Follow proper sampling instructions! Once a safe raw water sample is obtained, collect a sample after your treatment equipment for comparison. File Size: 124KBPage Count: 2

  • Drinking Water Chlorination - Chlorine Chemistry Division ...

    chlorine.americanchemistry.com/Chlorine-Benefits/...drinking water chlorination could produce a group of DBPs known as trihalomethanes (THMs), including chloroform. EPA set the first regula-tory limits for THMs in 1979. Although the collective research does not definitively show that DBPs in drinking water cause adverse health effects in humans, high levels of these chemicals are undesirable. File Size: 2MBPage Count: 38

  • M20 Water Chlorination/ Chloramination Practices and ...

    /Store/M20-Water-Chlorination... CachedThis publication is the second edition of the American Water Works Association (AWWA) Manual M20; the original manual was titled "Water Chlorination." This manual provides information on chlorination and chloramination practices for the disinfection of drinking water.

  • Chlorination | The Safe Water System | CDC

    /safewater/chlorination.html CachedChlorination Cdc-pdf [PDF – 2 pages]. The Safe Water System (SWS) was developed in the 1990's in response to epidemic cholera in South America by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO).

  • Chlorination Certificates | Chlorination services ...

    www.chlorination.com CachedWater Chlorination is the process of adding a known amount of chlorine into a water system to effectively disinfect the system through the oxidation of the micro-organisms present in the system. The system is then flushed through and tested to ensure it is returned to a level consistent with the Water Authority's mains supply.

  • Small Water System Chlorination Controls

    /Portals/1/Documents/Pubs/331-398.pdfHigh Water Level Alarm Low Water Level Alarm Well Source Water Chlorine Solution Fixed Injection Rate – Reservoir Water Level Sensors Responding to a signal from the water level control box, the pump control box controls the electrical circuits for the chlorine feed pump and the well pump. When the well pumps water at a constant rate and the

  • What is Chlorination? — Safe Drinking Water Foundation

    water.org/.../2017/1/23/what-is-chlorination CachedNov 27, 2016 · Pre-chlorination in the flash mixer is found to remove tastes and odours, and control biological growth throughout the water treatment system, thus preventing growth in the sedimentation tanks (where solids are removed from the water by gravity settling) and the filtration media (the filters through which the water passes after sitting in the ...

  • Breakpoint Chlorination in Water Treatment Process

    readcivil.com/breakpoint-chlorination-in-water... CachedApart from the advantage of producing free chlorine, breakpoint chlorination can sometimes reduce taste and odour problems. The foregoing reactions are complex, being dependent on numerous factors such as temperature, pH and contact time. The breakpoint reaction could take about 20 minutes to complete and depends on the water quality.

  • Chlorination - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

    chlorinationChlorination was the first chemical water disinfection process and began to be used as a standard unit process at water treatment plants (WTPs) as early as 1902. Initially, solid chloride of lime (i.e. calcium hypochlorite) was used but was quickly replaced at larger WTPs by the more efficient chlorine gas.

  • Continuous Chlorination Disinfection System

    /.../sws_ccdso_guidelines.pdfOperation of Continuous Chlorination System • Operator Certification/Personnel – All persons responsible for the operation of the chlorination system must be reliable, trained and possess a State water operator's certificate of appropriate grade and type (Treatment and/or Distribution Operator).

  • Water Treatment Manual: Disinfection

    water/Disinfection2_web.pdfThe EPA first published a Water Treatment Manual on Disinfection in 1998. Since the publication of this manual there have been significant developments both in terms of the technology and understanding of the disinfection of drinking water and in the supervisory role of the EPA in the drinking water area. This File Size: 2MBPage Count: 200

  • Water chlorination - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_chlorination CachedWater chlorination is the process of adding chlorine or chlorine compounds such as sodium hypochlorite to water. This method is used to kill certain bacteria and other microbes in tap water as chlorine is highly toxic. In particular, chlorination is used to prevent the spread of waterborne diseases such as cholera, dysentery, and typhoid

  • Drinking Water Chlorination - World Chlorine Council

    2 Drinking Water Chlorination • World Chlorine Council position paper 2008 The use of chlorine to protect drinking water is one of the greatest public health advances in history. Chlorine destroys disease-causing organisms in water and is the most commonly-used disinfectant in all regions of the world.


    onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/...Rev. ed. of: Handbook of chlorination and alternative disinfectants / Geo. Clifford White. 4th ed. 1999. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-470-18098-3 (cloth) 1. Water–Purifi cation–Chlorination. 2. Sewage–Purifi cation–Chlorination. 3. Water–Purifi cation–Disinfection. I. White, George Clifford.

  • White's Handbook of Chlorination and Alternative ...

    's+Handbook+of... CachedNew edition covers the latest practices, regulations, and alternative disinfectants. Since the publication of the Fourth Edition of White's Handbook of Chlorination and Alternative Disinfectants more than ten years ago, the water industry has made substantial advances in their understanding and application of chlorine, hypochlorite, and alternative disinfectants for water and wastewater treatment. Author: Black & Veatch CorporationFormat: Hardcover

  • Chlorine in Drinking-water - WHO

    /water_sanitation_health/dwq/chlorine.pdfWater Chlorine is present in most disinfected drinking-water at concentrations of 0.2–1 mg/litre (3). Food Cake flour bleached with chlorine contains chloride at levels in the range 1.3–1.9 g/kg. Unbleached flour may contain small amounts of chlorite (400–500 mg/kg) (8). Estimated total exposure and relative contribution of drinking-water

  • 6. Water treatment - WHO

    /water_sanitation_health/hygiene/om/...6. Water treatment 6. WATER TREATMENT 6.1 Introduction Water can be contaminated by the following agents: Pathogens – disease-causing organisms that include bacteria, amoebas and viruses, as well as the eggs and larvae of parasitic worms. Harmful chemicals from human activities (industrial wastes, pesticides, fertilizers).

  • Chlorination of May 2004 Drinking Water

    /Portals/1/Documents/Pubs/331-253.pdfchlorination requires more sophisticated equipment and more training to apply safely. Adding chlorine as a hypochlorite is much simpler, requires less training and is safer. If large amounts of chlorine are required, the overall cost of gas chlorination may be lower. History of chlorination Techniques for chlorination of water supplies

  • Chlorination of Water for Fluming and Cleaning Fresh Fruits ...

    archive.onfarmfoodsafety.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/...Chlorination of Water for Fluming and Cleaning Fresh Fruits and Vegetables and Cleaning Equipment0 Note: The procedures below are "general" chlorination procedures. 1. Water Treatment The purpose of adding chlorine to wash and flume water is to keep the water File Size: 172KBPage Count: 9

  • Pipework Chlorination | Quality Assurance | Water Direct

    www.water-direct.co.uk/what-we-do/chlorination CachedEach chlorination commences with flushing of the system with clean drinking water in order to remove any debris and providing a clean base for the chlorination to take place. Following the initial flush through, the system is filled to capacity with a chlorinated solution (minimum 50mg/l strength) which will remain for a minimum of 1 hour.

  • Drinking Water Chlorination: A Review of Disinfection ...

    waterandhealth.org/safe-drinking-water/wp CachedThis file is also available for viewing and printing as a PDF file by clicking here. Table of Contents Executive Summary Chlorination and Public Health Chlorine: The Disinfectant of Choice The Risks of Waterborne Disease The Challenge of Disinfection Byproducts Drinking Water and Security Comparing Alternative Disinfection Methods The Future of Chlorine Disinfection Glossary References

  • Water Research Center - Chlorination of Drinking Water

    www.water-research.net/.../chlorination-of-water CachedShock chlorination is recommended whenever a well is new, repaired, or found to be contaminated. This treatment introduces high levels of chlorine to the water. Unlike superchlorination, shock chlorination is a "one time only" occurrence, and chlorine is depleted as water flows through the system; activated carbon treatment is not required.

  • Why disinfect? Chlorine demand and residual Methods of ...

    /.../WEDC_46-chlorination.pdfThe optimum chlorine residual in a small, communal water supply is in the range of 0.3 to 0.5mg/l. The chlorine dose required to disinfect a supply will increase if the water is very turbid. In such circumstances, it is best to treat the water to reduce turbidity before chlorination. Caution

  • Chlorination - Definition and Types of Chlorination

    chlorination-types.html CachedDefinition: It is the method of disinfection by which the micro organisms are killed if chlorine & its components are used. Chlorination serves not only for disinfection, but as an oxidant for other substances (iron, manganese, cyanide, etc) & for taste & odor control in water & wastewater.

  • Shock Chlorination: A Step-by-Step Guide to Shock ...

    dem.nv.gov/uploadedFiles/demnvgov/content...Shock Chlorination: A Step-by-Step Guide to Shock Chlorinating Wells and Home Water Supply Systems above the water line. 6. Run a hose from the faucet furthest from the pres-sure tank (see step 3) to the well, and place the end of the hose in the well. The hose need not reach the bottom of the well, but should be deep enough to File Size: 1MBPage Count: 4

  • People also ask What are the advantages and drawbacks of the chlorination of water? While chlorination is effective at sanitizing drinking water, it can be difficult to handle without expertise and experience. The chlorination of water used for showering, laundering and swimming can dry out the skin and hair, may cause eye irritation and can also fade fabrics. Advantages and Disadvantages of Chemical Water Treatment ...

    of-chemical-water-treatmentSee all results for this question What are the benefits and risks of water chlorination? One of the major benefits of water chlorination is that the process helps to prevent contamination of the water supply by various types of microorganisms. The presence of the chlorine does not interfere with the ability of the water to provide hydration needed,... What are the Benefits and Risks of Water Chlorination?


    /files/live/sites/wssc/files...Pre-flush water source prior to chlorination until water has chlorine residual less than . 2.5mg/l and pH is less than 9.2. C. Use continuous feed method or tablet method for chlorination following AWWA C651 . for disinfecting water mains, except section, and as required herein. D.

  • The Fundamentals of Chlorine Chemistry and Disinfection

    dnr.wi.gov/.../documents/training/CL2Chemistry.pdf(Note for breakpoint chlorination): To eliminate NH 3 in drinking water using the breakpoint process, (e.g., surface water supply) chlorine is fed at a ratio of 10-12 to 1 to the ammonia level. • When chloramines are used, the distribution system must be continually monitored for mono- and dichloramine residuals and DO. Total chlorine is not ... File Size: 815KBPage Count: 22

  • Disinfection with Chlorine | Public Water Systems | Drinking ...

    /healthywater/drinking/public/... CachedChlorination is the process of adding chlorine to drinking water to disinfect it and kill germs. Different processes can be used to achieve safe levels of chlorine in drinking water. Chlorine is available as compressed elemental gas, sodium hypochlorite solution (NaOCl) or solid calcium hypochlorite (Ca(OCl) 2 1 .

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